Dr. Astrid Hölzing

My research

Like for the other collegues of the solar group Hock et al. my research topic was thin film photovoltaics. I investigated the crystallization mechanism of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 during reaction of sputtered metal layers with evaporated sulfur and selenium layers. In-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) during rapid thermal processing of CuInGa/S/Se stacked elemental layers (SEL-RTP) provide the data for the growth model. The aim of these investigations is to understand the growth mechanism of Cu(In,Ga)(S,se)2 - especially the reaction and diffusion behaviour of the metals, when both chalcogens S and Se are offered simultaneously. This can explain the formation of elemental gradients and inhomogeinities. In addition, the production process of the absorber layer can be optimized on the basis of the results.

I cooperated with different departments of the material science (IMEET, CENEM) and with Avancis GmbH within the projects Pro-CIS (funding by German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, BMU under contract number 0329941A) and CIS-QO (funded by the “Bayerische Forschungsstiftung” with the reference number AZ-857-09). In 2009 my interesting research was appreciated and funded by the "Fakultätsfrauenpreis" (faculty price for women) of the Faculty of Sciences.

Moreover I performed XRD phase analyses on different materials (Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2, SiC, stannate) and discussed the results with the collegues of different departments of material science (WW3, IMEET, CENEM).

Publications and conference contributions


I. Articles published in regular periodicals (peer-reviewed works, only), sorted by date

  1. The formation of the thin-film solar cell absorber CuInS2 by annealing of Cu-In-S stacked elemental precursors – a comparision of selenisation and sulfurisation
    S. Jost, R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, F. Hergert, R. Hock, M. Purwins, J. Palm
    Thin Solid Films 517(7) (2009) 2136-2139 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2008.10.076
  2. Sulfo-selenization of metallic thin films of Cu, In and Cu-In
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, H. Schäfer, A. Jäger, S. Jost, J. Palm, K. Deseler, P. Wellmann, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 517(7) (2009) 2213-2217 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2008.10.089
  3. The crystallisation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cell absorbers from co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors
    R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, S. Jost, R. Hock, T. Voß, J. Schulze, A. Kirbs, A. Ennaoui, M. Lux-Steiner, A. Weber, I. Kötschau, H.-W. Schock
    Thin Solid Films 517(7) (2009) 2465-2468 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2008.11.019
  4. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells from electroplated precursors: Novel low-cost perspective
    A. Ennaoui, M. Lux-Steiner, A. Weber, D. Abou-Ras, I. Kötschau, H.-W. Schock, R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, S. Jost, R. Hock, T. Voß, J. Schulze, A. Kirbs
    Thin Solid Films 517(7) (2009) 2511-2514 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2008.11.061
  5. Real-time Investigations on the Formation of CuIn(S,Se)2 while annealing precursors with varying sulfur content
    A. Hoelzing, R. Schurr, S. Jost, J. Palm, K. Deseler, P.J. Wellmann, R. Hock
    in Thin-Film Compound Semiconductor Photovoltaics - 2009, edited by A. Yamada, C. Heske, M. Contreras, M. Igalson, S.J.C. Irvine (Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Volume 1165, Warrendale, PA, 2009) 25-30 (1165-M02-02) doi: 10.1557/PROC-1165-M02-02
  6. Differential calorimetry study of the initial stage of the sulphurisation process of CuInSe2 solar cell materials
    K. Tang, U. Künecke, F. Oehlschläger, A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, R. Hock, P.W. Wellmann
    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 94(11) (2010) 1875-1879 doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2010.06.002
  7. Determination of material inhomogeneities in CuIn(Se,S)2 solar cell materials by high resolution cathodoluminescence topography
    F. Oehlschläger, J. Müller, U. Künecke, A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, R. Hock, P. Wellmann
    Energy Procedia 2(1) (2010) 183-188 doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2010.07.026
  8. Fundamental study of the temperature ramp-up influence for 3C-SiC hetero-epitaxy on silicon (100)
    P. Hens, G. Wagner, A. Hölzing, R. Hock, P. Wellmann
    Materials Science Forum 645-648, Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2009 (2010) 151-154 doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.645-648.151
  9. The influence of gallium on phase transitions during the crystallisation of thin film absorber materials Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 investigated by in-situ XRD
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, S. Jost, J. Palm, K. Deseler, P. Wellmann, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 519(21) (2011) 7197-7200 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2010.12.138
  10. Real-time investigations on the formation reactions during annealing of sulfurized Cu-Sn precursors
    R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 519(21) (2011) 7412-7415 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2010.12.166
  11. Dependence of the seed layer quality on different temperature ramp-up conditions for 3C-SiC hetero-epitaxy on Si (100)
    P. Hens, G. Wagner, A. Hölzing, R. Hock, P. Wellmann
    Thin Solid Films 522 (2012) 2-6 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.10.177
  12. A study of kesterite Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 formation from sputtered Cu-Zn-Sn metal precursors by rapid thermal processing sulfo-selenization of the metal thin films
    R.A. Wibowo, H. Yoo, A. Hölzing, R. Lechner, S. Jost, J. Palm, M. Gowtham, B. Louis, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 535 (2013) 57-61 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2012.11.074
  13. Investigation of the solid state reactions by time-resolved X-ray diffraction while crystallizing kesterite Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films
    H. Yoo, R.A. Wibowo, A. Hölzing, R. Lechner, J. Palm, S. Jost, M. Gowtham, F. Sorin, B. Louis, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 535 (2013) 73-77 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2013.01.054
  14. Scanning electron microscopical examination of the impact of laser patterning on microscopic inhomogeneities of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 absorbers produced by rapid thermal processing
    U. Künecke, A. Hölzing, S. Jost, R. Lechner, H. Vogt, A. Heiß, J. Palm, R. Hock, P. Wellmann
    Thin Solid Films 535 (2013) 97-101 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2012.11.069
  15. Real-time investigations on the formation of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 while annealing Cu-In-Ga precursors with different sulphur-selenium mixtures
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, H. Yoo, R.A. Wibowo, R. Lechner, J. Palm, S. Jost, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 535 (2013) 112-117 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2012.11.059
  16. In-situ phase formation study of copper indium diselenide absorber layers from CuIn nanoparticles and evaporated selenium
    S.A. Möckel, A. Hölzing, R. Hock, P.J. Wellmann
    Thin Solid Films 535 (2013) 131-137 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2012.11.081
  17. Phase transformation and photocatalytic characteristics of anodic TiO2 nanotubular film
    H.-J. Oh, R. Hock, R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, C.-S. Chi
    Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 74(5) (2013) 708-715 doi: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2013.01.008
  18. Untersuchung des Kristallisationsmechanismus von Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Dünnschichtsolarzellenmaterialien durch in-situ Röntgenbeugung während der Reaktion von Metallschichten mit Schwefel und Selen
    A. Hölzing
    Doctoral thesis, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (2013) download as pdf
  19. Intermetallic compounds dynamic formation during annealing of stacked elemental layers and its influences on the crystallization of Cu2ZnSnSe4 films
    R.A. Wibowo, S.A. Moeckel, H. Yoo, C. Hetzner, A. Hoelzing, R. Hock, P. Wellmann
    Materials Chemistry and Physics 142(1) (2013) 311–317 doi 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2013.07.021
  20. Formation of Cu2SnSe3 from stacked elemental layers investigated by combined in-situ X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry techniques
    R.A. Wibowo, S. Moeckel, H. Yoo, A. Hoelzing, R. Hock, P.J. Wellmann
    Journal of Alloys and Compounds 588 (2014) 254-258 doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2013.10.248

II. Publications without peer-review process, sorted by date

  1. Aufbau eines Reflektometers und Untersuchung dielektrischer Schichten auf SiC
    A. Hölzing
    Diploma Thesis, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (2007)
  2. Thin film chalcogenide based photovoltaic cells
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, H. Schäfer, A. Jäger, R. Hock
    Abstract Book, page 3-4
    Nanotechnology at German universities and research centers, Russian-German travelling seminar, June 18 – June 28, 2008, Frankfurt am Main, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, München, Erlangen, Würzburg (Germany)
  3. In-situ XRD Investigations on the Crystallisation of the chalcopyrite CuIn(S,Se)2 for application as absorber material in thin film solar cells
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, R. Hock
    Abstract Book, page 26-28
    Nanomaterials and Synchrotron X-Ray scattering – Russian-German Travelling Summer School, July 15 – July 28, 2009, Hamburg, Berlin, Dresden, Erlangen, Regensburg, München (Germany)

III. Oral, visual and short presentations, sorted by date

  1. Untersuchung dielektrischer Schichten auf 6H-SiC mittels Reflektometrie
    A. Hölzing, S.A. Sakwe, T. Frank, E. Mashkina, A. Magerl
    15. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Kristallographie (DGK), March 05 – March 09, 2007, Bremen (Germany); Poster (presented by A. Hölzing)
    Abstract
  2. Untersuchung dünner dielektrischer Schichten auf 6H-SiC mittels Reflektometrie
    A. Hölzing, S.A. Sakwe, T. Frank, M. Grieb, E. Mashkina, A. Magerl
    16. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Kristallographie (DGK), March 03 – March 06, 2008, Erlangen (Germany); Poster (presented by A. Hölzing)
    Abstract ID256
  3. The formation of the thin-film solar cell absorber CuInS2 by annealing of Cu-In-S stacked elemental precursors – a comparision of selenisation and sulfurisation
    S. Jost, R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, F. Hergert, R. Hock, M. Purwins, J. Palm
    European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, May 26 – May 30, 2008, Strasbourg (France); Talk (held by S. Jost)
    Collection of Abstracts, Symposium L: Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials, Abstract L-O2 4
  4. Investigations on the formation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cell absorbers from co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors
    R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, S. Jost, R. Hock, T. Voß, J. Schulze, A. Kirbs, A. Ennaoui, M. Lux-Steiner, A. Weber, I. Kötschau, H.-W. Schock
    European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, May 26 – May 30, 2008, Strasbourg (France); Talk (held by R. Schurr)
    Collection of Abstracts, Symposium L: Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials, Abstract L-O5 3
  5. Sulfo-selenization of metallic thin films of Cu, In, Cu-In and Cu-In-Ga
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, H. Schäfer, A. Jäger, S. Jost, J. Palm, K. Deseler, P. Wellmann, R. Hock
    European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, May 26 – May 30, 2008, Strasbourg (France); Poster (presented by A. Hölzing)
    Collection of Abstracts, Symposium L: Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials, Abstract L-P1 28
  6. Stacked-Elemental-Layer-RTP and formation of sulfide scales on metals and alloys – a comparision
    R. Hock, R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, S. Jost, J. Palm, A. Weber, R. Mainz, I. Koetschau, H.W. Schock
    European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, May 26 – May 30, 2008, Strasbourg (France); Poster (presented by R. Hock)
    Collection of Abstracts, Symposium L: Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials, Abstract L-P1 43
  7. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells from electroplated precursors: Novel low-cost perspective
    A. Ennaoui, M. Lux-Steiner, A. Weber, D. Abou-Ras, I. Kötschau, H.-W. Schock, R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, S. Jost, R. Hock, T. Voß, J. Schulze, A. Kirbs
    European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, May 26 – May 30, 2008, Strasbourg (France); Poster (presented by A. Ennaoui)
    Collection of Abstracts, Symposium L: Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials, Abstract L-P3 24
  8. Thin film chalcogenide based photovoltaic cells
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, H. Schäfer, A. Jäger, R. Hock
    Nanotechnology at German universities and research centers, Russian-German travelling seminar, June 18 – June 28, 2008, Frankfurt am Main, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, München, Erlangen, Würzburg (Germany); Talk (held by A. Hölzing)
    Abstract book, Article page 3-4
  9. Stacked-Elemental-Layer-Annealing and sulfide corrosion of alloys – A comparision
    R. Hock, R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, S. Jost, J. Palm, A. Weber, R. Mainz, I. Kötschau, H.W. Schock
    16th International Conference on Ternary and Multinary Compounds (ICTMC), September 15 – September 19, 2008, Berlin (Germany); Talk (held by R. Hock)
    Book of Abstracts, Abstract ID 200
  10. Investigations on the formation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cell absorbers from co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors
    R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, S. Jost, R. Hock, T. Voß, J. Schulze, A. Kirbs, A. Ennaoui, M. Lux-Steiner, A. Weber, I. Kötschau, H.-W. Schock
    16th International Conference on Ternary and Multinary Compounds (ICTMC), September 15 – September 19, 2008, Berlin (Germany); Poster (presented by R. Schurr)
    Book of Abstracts, Abstract ID 209
  11. Sulfo-selenisation of metallic thin films of Cu, In and Cu-In
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, H. Schäfer, A. Jäger, S. Jost, J. Palm, K. Deseler, P. Wellmann, R. Hock
    16th International Conference on Ternary and Multinary Compounds (ICTMC), September 15 – September 19, 2008, Berlin (Germany); Poster (presented by A. Hölzing)
    Book of Abstracts, Abstract ID 214
  12. Sulfo-Selenisierung von Cu-In-Precursoren: I. Probleme und Optimierung der experimentellen Methodik. II. Bildungsmechanismus des Chalkopyrits CuIn(S,Se)2 und Kesterits Cu2ZnSnS4
    A. Hölzing, R.Schurr, M. Ziener, R. Hock
    Lehrstuhlseminar 2009, February 08 – February 10, 2009, Masserberg (Germany); Talk (held by A. Hölzing)
  13. Real-time Investigations on the Formation of CuIn(S,Se)2 while Annealing Precursors Produced with a Combination of Sputtering of Metals and Thermal Co-evaporation of Chalcogens
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, S. Jost, J. Palm, K. Deseler, P. J. Wellmann, R. Hock
    Material Research Society (MRS) Spring Meeting, April 13 – April 17, 2009, San Francisco, CA (USA); Talk (held by A. Hölzing)
    Symposium M: Thin-Film Compound Semiconductor Photovoltaics, Abstract M2.2
  14. Determination of material inhomogeneities in CuIn(Se,S)2 solar cell materials by high resolution cathodoluminescence topography
    F. Oehlschläger, J. Müller, U. Künecke, A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, R. Hock, S. Jost, J. Palm, P.W. Wellmann
    European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, June 08 – June 12, 2009, Strasbourg (France); Talk (held by F. Oehlschläger)
    Collection of Abstracts, Symposium B: Inorganic and Nanostructured Photovoltaics (INP), Abstract B2 2
  15. Differential calorimetry study of the initial stage of the sulfurisation process of CuInSe2 solar cell materials
    K. Tang, U. Künecke, F. Oehlschläger, A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, R. Hock, P.W. Wellmann
    European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, June 08 – June 12, 2009, Strasbourg (France); Poster (presented by U. Künecke)
    Collection of Abstracts, Symposium B: Inorganic and Nanostructured Photovoltaics (INP), Abstract BP4 14
  16. In-situ XRD Investigations on the Crystallisation of the chalcopyrite CuIn(S,Se)2 for application as absorber material in thin film solar cells
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, R. Hock
    Nanomaterials and Synchrotron X-Ray scattering – Russian-German Travelling Summer School, July 15 – July 28, 2009, Hamburg, Berlin, Dresden, Erlangen, Regensburg, München (Germany); Talk (held by A. Hölzing)
    Abstract Book, Article page 26-28
  17. Fundamental study of the temperature ramp-up influence for 3C-SiC hetero-epitaxy on silicon (100)
    P. Hens, G. Wagner, A. Hölzing, R. Hock, P. Wellmann
    13th International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ICSCRM), October 11 – October 16, 2009, Nürnberg (Germany); Poster (presented by P. Hens)
    Abstract ID 388
  18. Angle-dispersive and time-resolved X-Ray diffraction while annealing Cu-In-Ga-S-Se Precursors – influence of different elemental ratios on the crystallisation of photovoltaic materials Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2
    A. Hölzing
    Lehrstuhlseminar 2010, February 28 – March 03, 2010, Bodenmais (Germany); Talk (held by A. Hölzing)
  19. Solar cell absorbers made from rust? – Stacked-Elemental-Layer-RTP and corrosion of alloys
    R. Hock, R. Schurr, A. Hölzing
    Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft Frühjahrstagung (DPG Spring Meeting), March 21 – March 26, 2010, Regensburg (Germany); Invited Talk (held by R. Hock)
    MM: Fachverband Metall- und Materialphysik: MM 30: Topical Session Photovoltaic Materials I, Abstract MM 30.1
  20. The influence of reducing the chalcogen to metal ratio on phase transitions during the crystallisation of photovoltaic materials CuIn(S,Se)2
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, S. Jost, J. Palm, B. Tautz, F. Oehlschläger, U. Künecke, K. Deseler, P. Wellmann, R. Hock
    Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft Frühjahrstagung (DPG Spring Meeting), March 21 – March 26, 2010, Regensburg (Germany); Talk (held by A. Hölzing)
    MM: Fachverband Metall- und Materialphysik: MM 31: Topical Session Photovoltaic Materials II, Abstract MM 31.1
  21. Real-time investigations on the formation reactions in the system Cu-Sn-S
    R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, R. Hock
    Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft Frühjahrstagung (DPG Spring Meeting), March 21 – March 26, 2010, Regensburg (Germany); Talk (held by R. Schurr)
    MM: Fachverband Metall- und Materialphysik: MM 39: Topical Session Photovoltaic Materials III, Abstract MM 39.3
  22. The influence of gallium on phase transitions during the crystallisation of thin film absorber materials Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 investigated by in-situ XRD
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, S. Jost, J. Palm, K. Deseler, P. Wellmann, R. Hock
    European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, June 07 – June 11, 2010, Strasbourg (France); Poster (presented by A. Hölzing)
    Collection of Abstracts, Symposium M: Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials, Abstract M-P1 19
  23. Real-time investigations on the formation reactions during annealing of sulfurized Cu-Sn and Cu-Zn-Sn precursors
    R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, R. Hock
    European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, June 07 – June 11, 2010, Strasbourg (France); Poster (presented by R. Schurr)
    Collection of Abstracts, Symposium M: Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials, Abstract M-P1 29
  24. Real-time investigations on the formation of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 while annealing Cu-In-Ga precursors with different sulfur-selenium mixtures
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, H. Yoo, R.A. Wibowo, R. Lechner, J. Palm, S. Jost, R. Hock
    European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, May 14 – May 18, 2012, Strasbourg (France); Poster (presented by A. Hölzing)
    Collection of Abstracts, Symposium B: Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials, Abstract P1 4
  25. A study of Kesterite Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 formation from sputtered Cu-Zn-Sn metal precursors by RTP sulfo-selenization of the metal thin films
    R.A. Wibowo, H. Yoo, A. Hölzing, R. Lechner, S. Jost, J. Palm, G. Manoharan, B. Louis, R. Hock
    European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, May 14 – May 18, 2012, Strasbourg (France); Poster (Posteraward) (presented by R.A. Wibowo)
    Collection of Abstracts, Symposium B: Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials, Abstract P3 17
  26. In-situ phase formation study of CISe absorber layers from CuIn-nanoparticle and evaporated selenium
    S.A. Möckel, A. Hölzing, R. Hock, P.J. Wellmann
    European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, May 14 – May 18, 2012, Strasbourg (France); Poster (presented by S.A. Möckel)
    Collection of Abstracts, Symposium B: Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials, Abstract P3 25
  27. Investigation of the solid state reactions by time-resolved X-ray diffraction while crystallising kesterite Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films
    H. Yoo, R.A. Wibowo, A. Hoelzing, R. Lechner, J. Palm, S. Jost, G. Manoharan, B. Louis, R. Hock
    European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, May 14 – May 18, 2012, Strasbourg (France); Poster (presented by H. Yoo)
    Collection of Abstracts, Symposium B: Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials, Abstract P3 44