Thin Film Photovoltaic Materials


The Materials

The compounds Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 and Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 have attracted much attention as semiconductors especially due to their absorption coefficients for visible light exceeding that of crystalline silicon by two orders of magnitude. As a consequence an absorber layer of below two micrometers is already sufficient to absorb most of the incident solar power and so-called Thin Film Solar Cells become feasible. The decrease of the thickness of the absorber layer will save raw materials as well as energy input in the production process.


State of the Art

The compounds CuInSe2, CuGaSe2 and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 among other ternary compounds have shown good photovoltaic properties. First investigations of solar cell devices based on these materials have started 35 years ago. Meanwhile Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells are subject to active research all over the world. Although first manufactures are already producing and selling photovoltaic modules based on this technology there is still necessity for further research to clarify and to understand further material properties.

Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin films are another of the most promising materials for low-cost thin film solar cells and subject of increasing research. Compared with Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells the knowledge about formation reactions, material properties and film growth is still insufficient and needs ongoing systematic investigations to enhance conversion efficiency and enable industrial fabrication.


Our Contribution (Publications)

The Thin Film Photovoltaics group focuses on investigations of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 , Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 and related materials by x-ray powder diffraction. We have developed a special experimental set-up which enables the detection of the semiconductor formation reactions in real time. Advanced data evaluation facilitates to determine chemical reaction equations of the synthesis of the absorber material. The experimental work is accompanied by theoretical input of thermodynamic as well as crystallographic data. These studies provide an overview on beneficial reaction paths for different chalcopyrite compounds in the phase field Cu(Al,Ga,In)(S,Se)2 and Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4, which allows a further optimisation of the semiconductor production process. We collaborate with the Chair for Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology of the Materials Science Department (University of Erlangen-Nürnberg) and one industrial partner.


Interested

Please find more detailed information about our research activities in the list of our recent publications. If you like to join our group please contact us.

Current Group Members:

Former Group Members:

  • F. Hergert
  • S. Jost
  • R. Schurr
  • A. Hölzing
  • Dr. R. Wibowo

Frequently used abbreviations

  • Chalcopyrite is the name for the natural mineral CuFeS2. The atoms are arranged in a tetragonal crystal structure, the so-called chalcopyrite structure. Apart from CuFeS2 many other compounds like CuInSe2 or CuGaSe2 crystallise in this structure.
  • CIS is a commonly used acronym, for example used in the term "CIS Solar Cells". It stands for copper indium selenide, CuInSe2, but is also used for copper deficient compounds like Cu0.95InSe2.
  • CGS stands for the compound copper gallium selenide, CuGaSe2 (similar to CIS).
  • CIGS: The compounds CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 form a solid solution. This means that any mixed crystal compound CuIn1-xGaxSe2 can be synthesised. The ideal composition concerning efficiency is represented by CIGS with an approximate gallium content of x = 0.3.
  • CZTS stands for the compound Cu2ZnSnS4, also named kesterite. The crystal structure of CZTS is similar to that of chalcopyrites such as CuInS2. A CZTS unit cell can be obtained from that of CuInS2 by replacing In with Zn and Sn. This replacement is desired in view of the scarce sources and therefore relatively high costs of In. Several research groups have attempted the use of CZTS thin film for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.
  • RTP - SEL: This shortcut means Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) of Stacked Elemental Layers (SEL) and refers to one possible production method of the absorber material CIGS from the elements copper, indium, gallium and selenium. The sample temperature in this process is raised rapidly. Prior to annealing the Stacked Elemental Layers are deposited on a substrate (usually float glass) by sputtering or thermal evaporation.

Publications

2013

  • In-situ phase formation study of copper indium diselenide absorber layers from CuIn nanoparticles and evaporated selenium
    S.A. Möckel, A. Hölzing, R. Hock, P.J. Wellmann
    Thin Solid Films 535 (2013) 133-137 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2012.11.081
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2012 Spring Meeting, May 14 - 18, 2012, Strasbourg (France)
  • Real-time investigation on the formation of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 while annealing Cu-In-Ga precursors with different sulphur-selenium mixtures
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, H. Yoo, R.A. Wibowo, R. Lechner, J. Palm, S. Jost, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 535 (2013) 112-117 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2012.11.059
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2012 Spring Meeting, May 14 - 18, 2012, Strasbourg (France)
  • Scanning electron microscopical examination of the impact of laser patterning on microscopic inhomogeneities of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 absorbers produced by rapid thermal processing
    U. Künecke, A. Hölzing, R. Lechner, H. Vogt, A. Heiß, J. Palm, R. Hock, P. Wellmann
    Thin Solid Films 535 (2013) 97-101 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2012.11.069
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2012 Spring Meeting, May 14 - 18, 2012, Strasbourg (France)
  • Investigation of the solid state reactions by time-resolved X-ray diffraction while crystallizing kesterite Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films
    H. Yoo., R.A. Wibowo, A. Hölzing, R. Lechner, J. Palm, S. Jost, M. Gowtham, F. Sorin, B. Louis, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 535 (2013) 73-77
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2012 Spring Meeting, May 14 - 18, 2012, Strasbourg (France)
  • A study of kesterite Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 formation from sputtered Cu-Zn-Sn metal precursors by rapid thermal processing sulfo-selenization of the metal thin films
    R.A. Wibowo, H. Yoo, A. Hölzing, R. Lechner, S. Jost, J. Palm, M. Gowtham, B. Louis, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 535 (2013) 57-61 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2012.11.074
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2012 Spring Meeting, May 14 - 18, 2012, Strasbourg (France)
  • Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells processed by rapid thermal processing of stacked elemental layer precursors
    R. Lechner, S. Jost, J. Palm, M. Gowtham, F. Sorin, B. Louis, H. Yoo, R.A. Wibowo, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 535 (2013) 5-9 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2012.10.042
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2012 Spring Meeting, May 14 - 18, 2012, Strasbourg (France)
  • Phase transformation and photocatalytic characteristics of anodic TiO2 nanotubular film
    H.-J. Oh, R. Hock, R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, C.-S. Chi
    Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 74(5) (2013) 708-715 doi: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2013.01.008

2012

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  • Dependence of the seed layer quality on different temperature ramp-up conditions for 3C-SiC hetero-epitaxy on Si(100)
    P. Hens, G. Wagner, A. Hölzing, R. Hock, P. Wellmann
    Thin Solid Films 522 (2012) 2-6 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.10.177
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2011 Spring Meeting IUMRS ICAM 2011 & E-MRS/MRS Bilateral conference on energy, May 9 - 13, 2011, Nice (France)
  • Strukturelle Charakterisierung von Chalkopyritverbindungshalbleitern hergestellt in einem "Fluid-Bed-Reaktor"
    M. Brandl
    Master Thesis, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (2012)

2011

  • Real-time investigations on the formation reactions during annealing of sulfurized Cu-Sn precursors
    R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 519(21) (2011) 7412-7415 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2010.12.166
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2010 Spring Meeting, June 07 - 11, 2010, Strasbourg (France)
  • The influence of gallium on phase transitions during the crystallisation of thin film absorber materials Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 investigated by in-situ XRD
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, S. Jost, J. Palm, K. Deseler, P. Wellmann, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 519(21) (2011) 7197-7200 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2010.12.138
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2010 Spring Meeting, June 07 - 11, 2010, Strasbourg (France)

2010

  • Mikrowellenunterstützte Synthese von Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2-Absorbermaterialien
    R. Fader
    Diploma Thesis, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (2010)
  • Synthese und Charakterisierung von CuIn(Se,S)2-Verbindungshalbleitern mit Schwefel-Selen Mischphasen
    M. Ziener
    Diploma Thesis, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (2010)
  • Fundamental study of the temperature ramp-up influence for 3C-SiC hetero-epitaxy on silicon (100)
    P. Hens, G. Wagner, A. Hölzing, R. Hock, P. Wellmann
    Materials Science Forum 645-648, Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2009 (2010) 151-154 doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.645-648.151
    Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ICSRM), October 11 - 16, 2009, Nürnberg (Germany)
  • Determination of material inhomogeneities in CuIn(Se,S)2 solar cell materials by high resolution cathodoluminescence topography
    F. Oehlschläger, J. Müller, U. Künecke, A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, R. Hock, P. Wellmann
    Energy Procedia 2(1) (2010) 183-188 doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2010.07.026
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2009 Spring Meeting, June 08 - 12, 2009, Strasbourg (France)
  • Differential calorimetry study of the initial stage of the sulfurization process of CuInSe2 solar cell materials
    K. Tang, U. Künecke, F. Oehlschläger, A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, R. Hock, P. Wellmann
    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 94(11) (2010) 1875-1879 doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2010.06.002
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2009 Spring Meeting, June 08 - 12, 2009, Strasbourg (France)

2009

  • Real-time Investigations on the formation of CuIn(S,Se)2 while annealing precursors with varying sulfur content
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, S. Jost, J. Palm, K. Deseler, P. Wellmann, R. Hock
    in Thin-Film Compound Semiconductor Photovoltaics—2009, edited by A. Yamada, C. Heske, M. Contreras, M. Igalson, S.J.C. Irvine
    (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Volume 1165, Warrendale, PA, 2009), 1165-M02-02 (p. 25-30) doi: 10.1557/PROC-1165-M02-02
  • Proceedings of the Materials Research Society 2009 Spring Meeting, April 13 - 17, 2009, San Francisco, CA (USA)
  • Structural study of the initial growth of nanocrystalline CdS thin films in a chemical bath
    N.S. Kozhevnikova, A.A. Rempel, F. Hergert, A. Magerl
    Thin Solid Films 517(8) (2009) 2586-2589 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2008.10.014
  • Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells from electroplated precursors: Novel low-cost Perspective
    A. Ennaoui, M. Lux-Steiner, A. Weber, I. Kötschau, H.-W. Schock, R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, S. Jost, R. Hock, T. Voß, J. Schulze, A. Kirbs
    Thin Solid Films 517(7) (2009) 2511-2514 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2008.11.061
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2008 Spring Meeting, May 26 - 30, 2008, Strasbourg (France)
  • The crystallisation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cell absorbers from co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors
    R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, S. Jost, R. Hock, T. Voß, J. Schulze, A. Kirbs, A. Ennaoui, M. Lux-Steiner, A. Weber, I. Kötschau, H.-W. Schock
    Thin Solid Films 517(7) (2009) 2465-2468 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2008.11.019
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2008 Spring Meeting, May 26 - 30, 2008, Strasbourg (France)
  • Sulfo-selenization of metallic thin films of Cu, In and Cu-In
    A. Hölzing, R. Schurr, H. Schäfer, A. Jäger, R. Hock, S. Jost, J. Palm, K. Deseler, P. Wellmann
    Thin Solid Films 517(7) (2009) 2213-2217 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2008.10.089
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2008 Spring Meeting, May 26 - 30, 2008, Strasbourg (France)
  • The formation of the thin-film solar cell absorber CuInS2 by annealing of Cu-In-S stacked elemental precursors - a comparsion of selenisation and sulfurisation
    S. Jost, R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, F. Hergert, R. Hock, M. Purwins, J. Palm
    Thin Solid Films 517(7) (2009) 2136-2139 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2008.10.076
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2008 Spring Meeting, May 26 - 30, 2008, Strasbourg (France)

2008

  • Untersuchungen von Schwefel-Selen-Precursoren zur Herstellung von Chalkopyrit-Dünnschichtsolarzellen
    A. Jäger
    Diploma Thesis, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (2008)
  • Kristallisation aus gemischten Schwefel-Selen-Schmelzen - Auf der Suche nach optimierten Quellen für die Ko-Verdampfung der Chalkogenide
    H. Schäfer
    Diploma Thesis, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (2008)
  • The formation of CuInSe2-based thin-film solar cell absorbers from alternative low-cost precursors
    S. Jost
    Doctoral Thesis, University Erlangen (2008) 155 pages
    download as PDF
  • The formation of CuInSe2 thin film solar cell absorbers by laser annealing of electrodeposited precursors
    S. Jost, R. Schurr, F. Hergert, R. Hock, J. Schulze, A. Kirbs, T. Voß, M. Purwins, J. Palm, I. Mys
    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92(4) (2008) 410-417 doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2007.10.002

2007

  • The formation of CuInSe2 thin film solar cell absorbers from electroplated precursors with varying selenium content
    S. Jost, F. Hergert, R. Hock, J. Schulze, A. Kirbs, T. Voß, M. Purwins
    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 91(18) (2007) 1669-1675 doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2007.05.016
  • Real-time investigations on the formation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 while annealing precursors produced with a combination of sputtering and thermal evaporation
    S. Jost, F. Hergert, R. Hock, M. Purwins, M. Schmid
    in Thin-Film Compound Semiconductor Photovoltaics—2007, edited by T. Gessert, S. Marsillac, T. Wada, K. Durose, C. Heske
    (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Volume 1012, Warrendale, PA, 2007), 1012-Y10-01 (p. 335-340) doi: 10.1557/PROC-1012-Y10-01
    Proceedings of the Materials Research Society 2007 Spring Meeting, April 09 - 13, 2007, San Francisco, CA (USA)
  • The formation of CuInSe2 thin film solar cell absorbers from electroplated precursors
    S. Jost, F. Hergert, R. Hock, T. Voß, J. Schulze, A. Kirbs, M. Purwins, M. Schmid
    in Thin-Film Compound Semiconductor Photovoltaics—2007, edited by T. Gessert, S. Marsillac, T. Wada, K. Durose, C. Heske
    (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Volume 1012, Warrendale, PA, 2007), 1012-Y03-29 (p. 175-180) doi: 10.1557/PROC-1012-Y03-29
    Proceedings of the Materials Research Society 2007 Spring Meeting, April 09 - 13, 2007, San Francisco, CA (USA)
  • A Study of Cadmium Sulfide Nanocrystalline Films by Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction
    N.S. Kozhevnikova, A.A. Rempel, F. Hergert, A. Magerl
    Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A 81(5) (2007) 768–772 doi: 10.1134/S0036024407050202
    Original Russian Text published in Zhurnal Fizicheskoi Khimii 81(5) (2007) 887–892
  • Chemical formation reactions for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and other chalcopyrite compounds -
    An in-situ x-ray diffraction study and crystallographic models

    F. Hergert
    Doctoral Thesis, University Erlangen (2007) 160 pages
    download as PDF
  • Real-time investigations on the formation of CuInSe2 thin film solar cell absorbers from electrodeposited precursors
    S. Jost, F. Hergert, R. Hock, J.Schulze, A. Kirbs, T. Voß, M. Purwins, M. Schmid
    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 91(7) (2007) 636-644 doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2006.12.012
  • Predicted formation reactions for the solid-state syntheses of the semiconductor materials Cu2SnX3 and Cu2ZnSnX4 (X = S, Se) starting from binary chalcogenides
    F. Hergert, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 515(15) (2007) 5953-5956 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2006.12.096
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2006 Spring Meeting (E-MRS - IUMRS - ICEM 06), May 29 - June 02, 2007, Nice (France)
  • Raman Spectroscopy for Quality Control and Process Optimization of Chalcopyrite, Thin Films and Devices
    J. Palm, S. Jost, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 515(15) (2007) 5913-5916 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2006.12.162
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2006 Spring Meeting (E-MRS - IUMRS - ICEM 06), May 29 - June 02, 2007, Nice (France)
  • Phase relations in the ternary Cu-Ga-In system
    M. Purwins, R. Enderle, M. Schmid, P. Berwian, G. Müller, F. Hergert, S. Jost, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 515(15) (2007) 5895-5898 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2006.12.090
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2006 Spring Meeting (E-MRS - IUMRS - ICEM 06), May 29 - June 02, 2007, Nice (France)
  • Formation reactions of chalcopyrite compounds and the role of sodium doping
    F. Hergert, S. Jost, R. Hock, M. Purwins, J. Palm
    Thin Solid Films 515(15) (2007) 5843-5847 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2006.12.037
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2006 Spring Meeting (E-MRS - IUMRS - ICEM 06), May 29 - June 02, 2007, Nice (France)
  • Pentanary chalcopyrite compounds without tetragonal deformation in the heptanary system Cu(Al,Ga,In)(S,Se,Te)2
    F. Hergert, R. Hock, S. Schorr
    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 91(1) (2007) 44-46 doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2006.07.001
  • Flüssigprozessierung von CuIn(S,Se)2 und Cu4ZnSn(S,Se)2 Absorbern für Dünnschichtsolarzellen
    F. Haase
    Diploma Thesis, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (2007)

2006

  • Phase segregation in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers - Kinetics of the selenization of gallium containing metal alloys
    M. Purwins, P. Berwian, R. Enderle, G. Müller, F. Hergert, S. Jost, R. Hock
    Proceedings of the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Sep. 04 - 08, 2006, Dresden (Germany)
    Proceedings (CD-ROM), available at www.photovoltaic-conference.com or from WIP-Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstr. 2, D–81369 München (Germany)
  • Predicted reaction paths for the formation of multinary chalcopyrite compounds
    Frank Hergert, Stefan Jost, Rainer Hock, Michael Purwins, and Jörg Palm
    Physica Status Solidi A 203(11) (2006) 2615-2623 doi: 10.1002/pssa.200669561
    Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Ternary and Multinary Compounds, March 06 - 10, 2006, Kyoto (Japan)
  • Prediction of solid-state reactions for the formation of the chalcopyrites CuInS2, CuGaS2, CuAlS2 and CuAlSe2 starting from binary compounds
    Frank Hergert, Stefan Jost, Rainer Hock, and Michael Purwins
    Physica Status Solidi A 203(11) (2006) 2598-2602 doi: 10.1002/pssa.200669559
    Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Ternary and Multinary Compounds, March 06 - 10, 2006, Kyoto (Japan)
  • Real-time investigations of selenization reactions in the system Cu-In-Al-Se
    Stefan Jost, Frank Hergert, Rainer Hock, Michael Purwins, and Ralph Enderle
    Physica Status Solidi A 203(11) (2006) 2581-2587 doi: 10.1002/pssa.200669558
    Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Ternary and Multinary Compounds, March 06 - 10, 2006, Kyoto (Japan)
  • A crystallographic description of experimentally identified formation reactions for Cu(In,Ga)Se2
    F. Hergert, S. Jost, R. Hock, M. Purwins
    Journal of Solid State Chemistry 179(8) (2006) 2394-2415 doi: 10.1016/j.jssc.2006.04.033
    Dedicated to the occassion of the 75th birthday of Prof. Hans Georg von Schnering
  • Investigation of phase formations occurring during the selenization of Cu/Al/In thin films
    R. Enderle, M. Purwins, G. Müller, F. Hergert, S. Jost, R. Hock
    Book of Abstracts, O-PII-38
    E-MRS IUMRS ICEM 2006 Spring Meeting; Nice (France), May 29 - June 02, 2006
  • Two-dimensional intensity corrections for in situ X-ray powder diffraction
    B. Hinrichsen, F. Hergert, R.B. Dinnebier, M. Jansen, R. Hock
    Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 23 (2006) 132
  • Background suppression with a triple beam-stop setup
    S. Jost, F. Hergert, R. Hock, M. Purwins, R. Enderle
    Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 23 (2006) 124
  • Al-Cu-In intermetallic mixed crystals
    K. Konias, F. Hergert, S. Jost, R. Hock, R. Enderle, M. Purwins
    Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 23 (2006) 98
  • Real-time XRD investigations during the formation of CuIn(Ga)Se2 thin films
    Frank Hergert, Stefan Jost, Rainer Hock, Michael Purwins
    Particle & Particle Systems Characterization 22(6) (2006) 423-426 doi: 10.1002/ppsc.200501003
    Special Issue: X-ray Diffraction
  • Charakterisierung von Cu-In-Al Metallschichten zur Herstellung von Dünnschichtsolarzellen auf Cu(In,Al)Se2 Basis
    K. Konias
    Diploma Thesis, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (2006)
  • Kinetics of the reactive crystallization of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 chalcopyrite films for solar cell applications
    M. Purwins, A. Weber, P. Berwian, G. Müller, F. Hergert, S. Jost, R. Hock
    Journal of Crystal Growth 287(2) (2006) 408-413 doi: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.11.054
    The 16th American Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy — ACCGE 16 —— The 12th Biennial Workshop on OMVPE — OMVPE 12, July 10 - 14, 2005, Big Sky, MT (USA)
  • A thermodynamic approach to the formation reactions of sodium doped Cu(In,Ga)Se2
    F. Hergert, S. Jost, R. Hock, M. Purwins, J. Palm
    Thin Solid Films 511-512 (2006) 147-152 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2005.11.081
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2005 Spring Meeting, May 31 - June 03, 2005, Strasbourg (France)

2005

  • In-situ Investigation of the Formation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 from Selenised Metallic Precursors by X-Ray Diffraction - The Impact of Gallium, Sodium and Selenium Excess
    F. Hergert, R. Hock, A. Weber, M. Purwins, J. Palm, V. Probst
    Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 66(11) (2005) 1903-1907 doi: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2005.09.025
    Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Ternary and Multinary Compounds, Sep. 27 - Oct. 01, 2004, Denver, CO (USA)
  • Echtzeit-Röntgenpulverbeugung zur Aufklärung chemischer Festkörperreaktionen am Beispiel der Bildung von Dünnschichten aus Cu(In,Ga)Se2 für Solarzellen
    F. Hergert, S. Jost, R. Hock, M. Purwins
    7. Workshop: "Zeit- und temperaturaufgelöste Röntgen-Pulver-Diffraktometrie", Oct. 20 - 21, 2005, Fraunhofer Institut Chemische Technologie, Pfinztal (Germany); Book of Abstracts, V2
  • Raman Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 for thin film solar devices
    J. Palm, V. Probst, S. Jost, R. Hock, E. Rudigier, R. Scheer
    Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, June 06 - 10, 2005, Barcelone (Spain)
  • The influence of sodium doping on intermediate reactions while processing CuInSe2 thin film absorber layers
    S. Jost, F. Hergert, R. Hock
    Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 22 (2005) 12
  • The formation of thin film solar cells - Monitoring of chemical reactions by real-time x-ray powder diffraction
    F. Hergert, R. Hock
    Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 22 (2005) 10

2004

  • Untersuchung der Grenzflächenreaktionen im System Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 mit Röntgenbeugung
    S. Jost
    Diploma Thesis, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (2004)

2003

  • CuInSe2 - Ein atomistisches Bildungsmodell. Strukturelle Charakterisierung von Dünnschichtfilmen zur photovoltaischen Anwendung
    A. Brummer
    Doctoral Thesis, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (2003)
  • Formation of CuInSe2 by the annealing Of stacked elemental layers -- analysis by in-situ high energy powder diffraction
    A. Brummer, V. Honkimäki, P. Berwian, V. Probst, J. Palm, R. Hock
    Thin Solid Films 437(1-2) (2003) 297-307 doi: 10.1016/S0040-6090(03)00685-0
  • CIS module pilot processing applying concurrent rapid selenization and sulfurization of large area thin film precursors
    J. Palm, V. Probst, A. Brummer, W. Stetter, R. Tölle, T. P. Niesen, S. Visbeck, O. Hernandez, M. Wendl, H. Vogt, H. Calwer, B. Freienstein, F. Karg
    Thin Solid Films 431-432 (2003) 514-522 doi: 10.1016/S0040-6090(03)00249-9
    Proceedings of the European Materials Research Society 2002 Spring Meeting, June 18 - 21, 2002, Strasbourg (France)
  • Eine Reaktionskammer zur in-situ-Untersuchung der Kristallisation von CuInSe2 aus metallischen Precursorschichten mittels Pulverbeugung
    A. Brummer, R. Hock, F. Hergert, P. Berwian, J. Palm
    Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 20 (2003) 112
  • In-situ investigation of the selenisation process of metallic precursors for CuInSe2 solar cells
    F. Hergert, M. Baier, R. Hock
    European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France), Experiment ME-562, May 5 - 11, 2003; Users' Reports, 25115 A

2002

  • Formation of Copper Indium Diselenide observed by in situ high energy powder diffraction
    A. Brummer, V. Honkimäki, R. Hock
    Book of Abstracts, P-2-58, p. 184
    13th International Conference on Ternary and Multinary Compounds, Oct. 14 - 16, 2002, Paris (France)

2001

  • In-situ investigation of the selenization of metal precursor-films for solar cell materials
    A. Brummer, R. Hock, P. Berwian
    European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France), Experiment ME-277, Nov. 2001; Users' Reports, 21147 A
  • Untersuchungen am Metallsystem Kupfer-Indium-Gallium für die Herstellung von Dünnschichtsolarzellen aus Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2
    F. Hergert
    Diploma Thesis, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (2001)
  • Röntgenographische Untersuchug an ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2/Mo-Dünnschichtsolarzellen - der Einfluß von Wärme und Feuchtigkeit
    A. Brummer, R. Hock, A. Magerl, V. Probst, F. Karg
    Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 18 (2001) 186